HMB Endeavour, replica
On permanent display at The National Maritime Museum in Darling harbour – Sydney | Museum wharves |
The Australian-built replica of James Cook’s HMB Endeavour is one of the world’s most accurate maritime reproductions. When you come on board you may wonder whether James Cook and his crew have just stepped ashore somewhere on their voyage. The table is set, clothes are hung and the cat is slumbering.
On board the beautifully crafted ship, you glimpse a sailor’s life during one of history’s great maritime adventures, Captain Cook’s epic 1768-71 world voyage. Look you’ll see almost 30 kilometres of ropes and 750 wooden blocks or pulleys! The masts and spars carry 28 sails that spread approximately 10,000 sq feet (930 m2) of canvas.
HMS Endeavour, also known as HM Bark Endeavour, was a British Royal Navy research vessel commanded by Lieutenant James Cook on his first voyage of discovery, to Australia and New Zealand from 1769 to 1771.
Launched in 1764 as the collier Earl of Pembroke, she was purchased by the Navy in 1768 for a scientific mission to the Pacific Ocean, and to explore the seas for the surmised Terra Australis Incognita or “unknown southern land”. Renamed and commissioned as His Majesty’s Bark the Endeavour, she departed Plymouth in August 1768, rounded Cape Horn, and reached Tahiti in time to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun. She then set sail into the largely uncharted ocean to the south, stopping at the Pacific islands of Huahine, Borabora, and Raiatea to allow Cook to claim them for Great Britain. In September 1769, she anchored off New Zealand, the first European vessel to reach the islands since Abel Tasman’s Heemskerck 127 years earlier.
In April 1770, Endeavour became the first seagoing vessel to reach the east coast of Australia, when Cook went ashore at what is now known as Botany Bay.
Endeavour then sailed north along the Australian coast. She narrowly avoided disaster after running aground on the Great Barrier Reef, and was beached on the mainland for seven weeks to permit rudimentary repairs to her hull. On 10 October 1770, she limped into port in Batavia in the Dutch East Indies for more substantial repairs, her crew sworn to secrecy about the lands they had discovered.
She resumed her westward journey on 26 December, rounded the Cape of Good Hope on 13 March 1771, and reached the English port of Dover on 12 July, having been at sea for nearly three years.
Largely forgotten after her epic voyage, Endeavour spent the next three years shipping Navy stores to the Falkland Islands. Renamed and sold into private hands in 1775, she briefly returned to naval service as a troop transport during the American Revolutionary War and was scuttled in a blockade of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island in 1778.
Her wreck has not been precisely located, but relics, including six of her cannons and an anchor, are displayed at maritime museums worldwide.
The Australian Replica of the HMS Endeavour is moored in Sydney
In January 1988, to commemorate the Australian Bicentenary of European settlement in Australia, work began in Fremantle, Western Australia on a replica of Endeavour. Financial difficulties delayed completion until December 1993, and the vessel was not commissioned until April 1994.
The replica vessel commenced her maiden voyage in October of that year, sailing to Sydney Harbour and then following Cook’s path from Botany Bay northward to Cooktown. From 1996 to 2002, the replica retraced Cook’s ports of call around the world, arriving in the original Endeavour’s home port of Whitby in June 2002.
Footage of waves shot while rounding Cape Horn on this voyage was later used in digitally composited scenes in the 2003 film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World.
The replica Endeavour visited various European ports before undertaking her final ocean voyage from Whitehaven to Sydney Harbour on 8 November 2004.
Her arrival in Sydney was delayed when she ran aground in Botany Bay, a short distance from the point where Cook first set foot in Australia 235 years earlier.
The replica Endeavour finally entered Sydney Harbour on 17 April 2005, having travelled 170,000 nautical miles (310,000 km), including twice around the world. Ownership of the replica was transferred to the Australian National Maritime Museum in 2005 for permanent service as a museum ship in Sydney’s Darling Harbour. The view here in the image shows Sydney City in the background and also Centrepoint Tower.
[ This extract is reproduced here courtesy of & from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]